Tag Archive: Egypt


ROYAL EGYPT

 

 

محمد علي باشا

Mohammed  Ali  Pasha

portrait in oils by Auguste Couder

 

Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas’ud ibn Agha – (Mehmet Ali Pasha in Albanian; Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa in Turkish) – (4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was an Ottoman Turk, of Albanian origin, who became an Ottoman Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres that he instituted.He also ruled Levantine territories outside Egypt.The dynasty that he established would rule Egypt and Sudan until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.Muhammad Ali was born in Kavala, in the Ottoman province of Macedonia (now a part of modern Greece) to Albanian parents.According to the many French, English and other western journalists who interviewed him, and according to people who knew him, the only language he knew fluently was Albanian. He was also competent in Turkish.The son of a tobacco and shipping merchant named Ibrahim Agha, his mother Zainab Agha was his uncle Husain Agha’s daughter. Muhammad Ali was the nephew of the “Ayan of Kavalla” (Çorbaci) Husain Agha.When his father died at a young age, Muhammad was taken and raised by his uncle with his cousins.As a reward for Muhammad Ali’s hard work, his uncle Çorbaci gave him the rank of “Bolukbashi” for the collection of taxes in the town of Kavala.After his promising success in collecting taxes, he gained Second Commander rank under his cousin Sarechesme Halil Agha in the Kavala Volunteer Contingent that was sent to re-occupy Egypt following Napoleon’s withdrawal.He married Ali Agha’s daughter, Emine Nosratli, a wealthy widow of Ali Bey.In 1801, his unit was sent, as part of a larger Ottoman force, to re-occupy Egypt following a brief French occupation. The expedition landed at Aboukir in the spring of 1801.The French withdrawal left a power vacuum in the Ottoman province. Mamluk power had been weakened, but not destroyed, and Ottoman forces clashed with the Mamluks for power.During this period of anarchy Muhammad Ali used his loyal Albanian troops to play both sides, gaining power and prestige for himself.As the conflict drew on, the local populace grew weary of the power struggle.Led by the ulema, a group of prominent Egyptians demanded that the Wāli (governor), Ahmad Khurshid Pasha, step down and Muhammad Ali be installed as the new Wāli in 1805.The Ottoman Sultan, Selim III, was not in a position to oppose Muhammad Ali’s ascension, thereby allowing Muhammad Ali to set about consolidating his position. During the infighting between the Ottomans and Mamluks between 1801 and 1805, Muhammad Ali had carefully acted to gain the support of the general public.By appearing as the champion of the people Muhammad Ali was able to forestall popular opposition until he had consolidated power.The Mamluks still posed the greatest threat to Muhammad Ali.They had controlled Egypt for more than 600 years, and over that time they had extended their rule extensively throughout Egypt.Muhammad Ali’s approach was to eliminate the Mamluk leadership, then move against the rank and file.In 1811, Muhammad Ali invited the Mamluk leaders to a celebration held at the Cairo Citadel in honor of his son, Tusun, who was being appointed to lead a military expedition into Arabia. When the Mamluks arrived, they were trapped and killed.After the leaders were killed, Muhammad Ali dispatched his army throughout Egypt to rout the remainder of the Mamluk forces.Muhammad Ali transformed Egypt into a regional power which he saw as the natural successor to the decaying Ottoman Empire. He summed up his vision for Egypt as follows:
“I am well aware that the (Ottoman) Empire is heading by the day toward destruction…On her ruins I will build a vast kingdom… up to the Euphrates and the Tigris.”

 

 

 

Order  of  Mohammed  Ali  – (Nishan  al-Muhammad  ‘Ali)

 

The Order of Muhammad ‘Ali : founded by Sultan Husain Kamil on 14th April 1915.
Awarded in a supreme class (Grand Cordon with Collar), two ordinary classes (1. Grand Cordon and 2. Commander) and two medals (gold and silver).
The supreme class being restricted to Heads of State and members of the Egyptian and foreign Royal houses.
The Grand Cordon was restricted to fifteen recipients at any one time.
They enjoyed the title of Pasha with the style of His Excellency (Hazrat Sahib al-Ma’ali), and were entitled to military salutes when wearing their insignia.
The medals were awarded for acts of military gallantry, regardless of rank. Obsolete 1954.

 

 

 

 

Interior  of  the  Mohammed Ali  Mosque

(The Citadel – Cairo – Egypt)

مسجد محمد علي

The  Mohammed Ali  Mosque

(The Citadel – Cairo – Egypt)

مسجد محمد علي

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arms of the Sultan of Egypt

 

 

 

Prince Toussoun – Son of Muhammad Ali – as a Boy

 

 

 

Ibrahim Pasha – from a miniture painted in Paris

 

 

Muhammad Said Pascha  –  (1822–1863)

سعيد باشا

Photo by Nadar

Sa’id of Egypt (1822–1863) was the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan from 1854 until 1863, officially owing fealty to the Ottoman Sultan but in practice exercising virtual independence.
He was the fourth son of Muhammad Ali Pasha. Sa’id was a Francophone, educated in Paris.
Under Sa’id’s rule there were several law, land and tax reforms. Some modernization of Egyptian and Sudanese infrastructure also occurred using western loans.
In 1854 the first act of concession of land for the Suez Canal was granted, to a French businessman Ferdinand de Lesseps. The British opposed a Frenchman building the canal and persuaded the Ottoman Empire to deny its permission for two years.
Sudan had been conquered by his father in 1821 and incorporated into his Egyptian realm, mainly in order to seize slaves for his army.
Slave raids (the annual ‘razzia’) also ventured beyond Sudan into Kordofan and Ethiopia.
Facing European pressure to abolish official Egyptian slave raids in the Sudan, Sa’id issued a decree banning raids. Freelance slave traders ignored his decree.
Under Sa’id’s rule the influence of sheikhs was curbed and many Bedouin reverted to nomadic raiding.
In 1854 he established the Bank of Egypt.
Sa’id died in January 1863 and was succeeded by his nephew Ismail.

 

 

 

 

إسماعيل باشا

Khedive Ismail Pasha

 

Isma’il Pasha (İsmail Paşa in Turkish), known as Ismail the Magnificent December 31, 1830 – March 2, 1895), was a Wāliand and subsequently Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 until he was removed at the behest of the British in 1879.
While in power he greatly modernized Egypt and Sudan, but also put the country heavily in debt.
His philosophy can be glimpsed in a statement he made in 1879: “My country (Egypt) is no longer in Africa; we are now part of Europe. It is therefore natural for us to abandon our former ways and to adopt a new system adapted to our social conditions.”
In 1867, Isma’il succeeded in persuading the Ottoman Sultan Abdülaziz to grant a firman finally recognizing him as Khedive in exchange for an increase in the tribute.
Another firman changed the law of succession to direct descent from father to son rather than brother to brother, and a further decree in 1873 confirmed the virtual independence of the Khedivate of Egypt from the Porte (Ottoman Government).

 


 

Crown of the Khedive of Egypt

 

The term Khedive (Turkish: Hıdiv) is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy.
It was first used, without official recognition, by Muhammad Ali Pasha, the Wāli of Egypt and Sudan, and technical vassal of the Ottoman Empire.
The initially self-declared title was officially recognized by the Ottoman government in 1867, and used subsequently by Ismail Pasha, and his dynastic successors until 1914.

 

 

 

إسماعيل باشا

Khedive Ismail Pasha

 

 

 

Khedive Ismail Pasha – in old age – after he was deposed

إسماعيل باشا


 

 

 

 

HH  Khedive  Muhammed  Tewfik  Pasha – (1852-1892)

محمد توفيق باشا


HH Muhammed Tewfik Pasha (Tawfiq of Egypt) (30 April or 15 November 1852 – 7 January 1892) was Khedive of Egypt and Sudan between 1879 and 1892, and the sixth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty.
In private life he was courteous and amiable.
He had no desire to keep up the unapproachable state of an oriental ruler. Indeed, in many ways his manners and habits were less oriental than European.
He married in 1873 his kinswoman, Amina Hanem, with whom he lived very happily.
She was his only wife and Tewfik was a strong advocate of monogamy.
He died on 7 January 1892, at the Helwan Palace near Cairo, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Abbas II.

 

 

 

 

HH  Khedive  Abbas  Helmi  II

عباس حلمي الثاني

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HH Abbas II Hilmi Bey (also known as Abbas Hilmi Pasha) (14 July 1874 – 19 December 1944) was the last Khedive of Egypt and Sudan (8 January 1892 – 19 December 1914).
The establishment of a sound system of native justice, the great remission of taxation, the reconquest of Sudan, the inauguration of the substantial irrigation works at Aswan, and the increase of cheap, sound education, each received his formal approval.
He displayed more interest in agriculturethan in statecraft. His farm of cattle and horses at Qubbah, near Cairo, was a model for scientific agriculture in Egypt, and he created a similar establishment at Muntazah, near Alexandria.
He married the Princess Ikbal Hanem and had several children.
His relations with Sir Eldon Gorst, were excellent, and they co-operated in appointing the cabinets headed by Butrus Ghali in 1908 and Muhammad Sa’id in 1910 and in checking the power of the Nationalist Party.
The appointment of Kitchener to succeed Gorst in 1911 displeased Abbas, and relations between him and the British deteriorated. Kitchener often complained about “that wicked little Khedive” and wanted to depose him.
When the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in World War I, the United Kingdom declared Egypt an independent Sultanate under British protectorate on 18 December 1914 and deposed Abbas.
Abbas supported the Ottomans in the war, including leading an attack on the Suez Canal.
His uncles Hussein Kamel and then Fuad I, the British choices for their Protectorate, issued a series of restrictive orders to strip Abbas of property in Egypt and Sudan and forbade contributions to him.
These also barred Abbas from entering Egyptian territory and stripped him of the right to sue in Egyptian courts.
Abbas finally accepted the new order of things on 12 May 1931 and abdicated.
He retired to Switzerland where he died at Geneva 19 December 1944.

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Flag of the Sultanate of Egypt  –  1882

 

 

 

 

 

Sa Hautesse  Sultan  Hussein  Kamel

حسين كامل

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Sultan Hussein Kamel (21 November 1853 – 9 October 1917) was the Sultan of Egypt from 19 December 1914 to 9 October 1917, during the British protectorate over Egypt.
Hussein Kamel was the son of Khedive Isma’il Pasha, who ruled Egypt from 1863 to 1879.
Hussein Kamel was granted the title of Sultan of Egypt by the British in 1914, after they had deposed his nephew, Khedive Abbas Hilmi II.
The newly created Sultanate of Egypt was declared a Britishprotectorate.
This brought to an end the legal fiction of Ottoman sovereignty over Egypt, which had been largely nominal since Muhammad Ali’s seizure of power in 1805.
Upon Hussein Kamel’s death, his only son, Prince Kamal al-Din Husayn, declined the succession, and Hussein Kamel’s brother Ahmed Fuad ascended the throne as Fuad I.

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Order  of  Ismail    –  (Nishan al-Ismail)

The Order of Ismail (Nishan al-Ismail): founded by Sultan Husain Kamil on 14th April 1915 to reward eminent services to the state.
Awarded in four classes (1. Grand Cordon – limited to thirty recipients, 2. Grand Officer – seventy five recipients, 3. Commander – one hundred and fifty recipients, and 4. Officer – three hundred recipients). Obsolete 1954.



His Majesty Fouad I

(by the grace of God, Sultan & King of Egypt & the Sudan – Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur)

فؤاد الأول


Fuad I (26 March 1868 – 28 April 1936) was the Sultan and later King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur. The ninth ruler of Egypt and Sudan from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, he became Sultan of Egypt and Sudan in 1917, succeeding his elder brother Sultan Hussein Kamel.
He substituted the title of King for Sultan when the United Kingdom unilaterally granted Egypt nominal independence in 1922. His name is sometimes spelled Fouad.
Prior to becoming sultan, Fuad had played a major role in the establishment of Cairo University. He became the university’s first rector in 1908, and remained in the post until his resignation in 1913.
In 1913, Fuad made unsuccessful attempts to secure for himself the throne of Albania, which had obtained its independence from the Ottoman Empire a year earlier.
Fuad also served as President of the Egyptian Geographic Society from 1915 until 1918.
Fuad ascended the throne of the Sultanate of Egypt upon the death of his brother Hussein Kamel in 1917.
On 28 February 1922, the United Kingdom ended its protectorate over Egypt and granted it nominal independence, in the aftermath of the Egyptian revolution of 1919.
As a result, Fuad issued a decree on 15 March 1922 whereby he changed his title from Sultan of Egypt to King of Egypt.
In 1930, he attempted to strengthen the power of the Crown by abrogating the 1923 Constitution and replacing it with a new constitution that limited the role of parliament to advisory status only.
Large scale public dissatisfaction compelled him to restore the earlier constitution in 1935.
The 1923 Constitution granted Fuad vast powers. He made frequent use of his right to dissolve Parliament. During his reign, cabinets were dismissed at royal will, and parliaments never lasted for their full four-year term but were dissolved by decree.
As a great-grandson of Muhammad Ali Pasha, Fuad was of Albanian descent.
He married his first wife in Cairo, 30 May 1895 at the Abbasiya Palace in Cairo, 14 February 1896, H.H. Princess Shivakiar Khanum Effendi (1876–1947).
Fuad married his second wife, Nazli Sabri (1894–1978), at the Bustan Palace, Cairo, 26 May 1919.
The couple had five children, the futureFarouk I and four daughters, the Princesses Fawzia (who became Queen Consort of Iran), Faiza, Faika, and Fathiya.
Fuad died at the Qubba Palace in Cairo and was buried at the Khedival Mausoleum in the ar-Rifai Mosque in Cairo.

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The  Royal  Arms  of  the  Kingdom  of  Egypt

 

 

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Malik Fuad visits an Egyptian Village

 

 

 

 

King Fouad I of Egypt (center) at the Mahattet Masr Railway Station

(currently the Ramses Station) with King Albert I and Queen Elisabeth of Belgium

 

 

 

 

 

Malik  Fuad’s  cortege  passes  through  the  streets  of  Cairo

 

 

 

 

 

His Majesty Farouk I – (1920-1965)

by the grace of God, King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of  Nubia, of Kordofan, and of Darfur

فاروق الأول

 

Farouk I of Egypt (Fārūq al-Awwal) (11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965), was the tenth ruler from the Muhammad Ali Dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936.
His full title was “His Majesty Farouk I, by the grace of God, King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, of Kordofan, and of Darfur.”
He was overthrown in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and was forced to abdicate in favor of his infant son Ahmed Fuad, who succeeded him as King Fuad II.
He died in exile in Italy.
His sister was Princess Fawzia Fuad, first wife and Queen Consort of the Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
The great-great-grandson of Muhammad Ali Pasha, Farouk was of Albanian descent as well as native Egyptian descent through his mother the Queen.
Before his father’s death, he was educated at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, England.
Upon his coronation, the hugely popular 16-year-old King Farouk made a public radio address to the nation, the first time a sovereign of Egypt had ever spoken directly to his people in such a way:
‘And if it is God’s will to lay on my shoulders at such an early age the responsibility of kingship,
I on my part appreciate the duties that will be mine, and I am prepared for all sacrifices in the cause of my duty…
My noble people, I am proud of you and your loyalty and am confident in the future as I am in God.
Let us work together. We shall succeed and be happy.
Long live the Motherland!’

 

 

 

Star  of  the  Imperial  and  Royal  House  of  Faruk  of  Egypt

 

 

 

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His Majesty Farouk I – (1920-1965)

 

 

 

His Majesty Farouk I – (1920-1965)

at the Abdin Palace – Cairo – Egypt

 

 

 


His Majesty Farouk I – (1920-1965)

at reception in the Abdin Palace – Cairo – Egypt

in full dress naval uniform

 

 

 

His Majesty Farouk I – (1920-1965)

with his dogs at the Qubba Palace


 

 

 

Prince  Ahmed  Fuad  –  1952

 

 

 

 

 

The  Tomb  of  King  Farouk  of  Egypt

مسجد الرفاعى

Al-Rifa’i Mosque  –  Cairo

 

The mosque is the resting place of Khushyar Hanim and her son Isma’il Pasha, as well as numerous other members of Egypt’s royal family, including King Farouk, Egypt’s last reigning king, whose body was interred here after his death in Rome in 1965. The mosque served briefly as the resting place of Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran, who died in exile in South Africa in 1944, and was returned to Iran after World War II. Part of the burial chamber is currently occupied by Reza Shah’s son Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, who died in Cairo in 1980.

 

 

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Princess Djananair Hanem Effendi

 

 

 

 

 

Princess  Hadija  –  Daughter  of  the  Younger  Muhammad  Ali

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Khediva  Emina  –  Wife  of  Khedive  Tewfik

 

Emine Ibrahim Hanımsultan (Istanbul, 24 May 1858 – Bebek, Bosphorus, 19 June 1931), daughter of HE Damad Ibrahim Ilhami Pasha Beyefend

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Princess  Nimetallah

 

 

 

 

 

Princess Nimetallah being greeted by Palace Chamberlains

 

 

 

 

 

 


Princess  Iffet  Hassan

 

 

 

 

 

 

Princess  Chivekiar

 

 

 

 

 

Princess  Iffet  Hassan  in  Pharonic  Dress  –  1911

 

 

 

 

 

 

الأميرة فوزية

Princess  Fawzia  –  Cairo –  1940s

 

Her Royal Highness the Princess Fawzia of Egypt & the Sudan (born 5 November 1921) is an Egyptian princess who became Queen of Iran as the first wife of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

She is currently Fawzia Shirin, having remarried in 1949 and having lost her royal titles after the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, although she is referred to as princess out of courtesy. She is the most senior member of the deposed Muhammad Ali Dynasty residing in Egypt. Her nephew, Fuad, who was proclaimed King Fuad II of Egypt and Sudan after the Revolution, resides in Switzerland.


 

 

الأميرة فوزية

Princess  Fawzia  –  Cairo –  1940s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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STOP  PRESS

His Majesty King Ahmed Fuad II

King of Egypt & the Sudan

فؤاد الثاني

 

“In the name of Allah the benevolent and the merciful.


We Ahmed Fouad II of Egypt, deeply saddened by the tragic events experienced by our beloved country, wish wholeheartedly for a swift solution to the present crisis.

“Our prayers accompany families who have suffered losses of dear ones.

“Our best wishes for a prompt recovery are extended to those who have been injured.

“We hope most sincerely that these unfortunate victims will be truly the last and that there will be no more bloodshed.

“Let us hope that the whole Nation and its people will recover peace and well being and take the path of democracy. Social and economic development can only come through peaceful dialogue.

“May Allah protect my beloved Egypt and the Egyptian people.”


The new monarch of Egypt ?

Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi



PLEASE NOTE : This blog is still under construction – check back for more developments


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for more information about Egypt see:

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http://www.scribd.com/doc/27406343/Thebes-of-the-1000-Gates


and

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http://www.scribd.com/doc/18746429/So-Long-Ago-So-Clear


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A new chapter has been added to ‘The Lord of the Harvest’

part of the blog ‘Through My Eyes’

PLEASE NOTE – THE BLOGS ‘GREAT ART’ & ‘OTTO LOHMULLER’ HAVE BEEN DELETED BY WORDPRESS

WE ARE DOING ARE BEST TO HAVE THESE BLOGS RE-INSTATED

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OTHER  BLOGS  BY  PETER  CRAWFORD


SO LONG AGO – SO CLEAR


GREAT  ART

Google Blogspot

 

FRANK  HAMPSON


LORD OF THE HARVEST


 

CONTEMPORARY
DESIGN


 

OTTO  LOHMÜLLER

 

TOM  DALEY

 

 


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So Long Ago – So Clear

 

 

 

This is where we begin – before the beginning ! –

And it all starts in 1950


‘Not in entire forgetfulness,

And not in utter nakedness,
But trailing clouds of glory do we come…

Wordsworth


Well, what else could we call this first part ?
How our Peter began, or exactly where he came from for most people is a now a mystery.
As Kahlil Gibran, a poet often quoted by those who wish to sound profound when saying nothing, says, ‘Vague and nebulous is the beginning of all things – Life, and all that lives is conceived in the mist and not in the crystal !’.
Well in Peter’s case this is undoubtedly true, and like some mythic hero he springs into the world fully formed, with no conception or gestation; no father or mother. John Stokes, of course, knew where Peter really came from, but he would never tell.  And now he is dead.
There was probably a time when some people could have explained what had happened, but by now all those people are certainly dead.
Perhaps there are some yellowing pieces of paper in some file tucked away in some cabinet in some archive – but that’s unlikely.
From the present perspective it seems that Peter just appeared.There was a birth certificate, but this was issued in 1950, and Peter was born in 1946.
This certificate was issued at Brentford Magistrates Court, gave the name of the child as Peter Crawford, the son of John Stokes Crawford and Jane Crawford, who was born on the 31st December 1946.
And  what are the first memories to which Peter will admit ?
They are of huge, silent, empty, white rooms, and a big white rocking horse – beautifully painted, which only Peter used.
Now this could be described as a ‘false memory’, but that may not be so. It is a memory that Peter had from his earliest days, and Peter sometimes wondered if it was a real memory of if perhaps the real memories were blocked out.
If we are prepared to believe in the existence of the soul, then there is the possibility that it comes into being at conception or birth. It is also possible, however, that if the soul in fact exists, then it may have some pre-existence. To quote Longfellow, ‘we come trailing clouds of glory’. Perhaps these large, white empty rooms are all that a child’s mind can make of that other place, ‘before the beginning’ – a place to which we may also return ?And there is one other memory that Peter is prepared to recount. It is not a cold, empty memory, like that of the white rooms, but a joyful memory.
It is on a hill, covered in grass and purple heather, and there is a beautiful red sunrise, or sunset, and Peter is with a group of other children – the ‘lost boys’ perhaps ? The children are all happy and beautiful, and very young, and they are walking purposefully toward the brow of the hill, and toward the glowing, red and purple clouds.
And then a journey by train, with two people that Peter didn’t know, which ends up in a ‘living-room’ in a strange house, and a nice meal.
Peter’s adoption, as far as we can ascertain, took place in 1949, so Peter’s childhood took place in the nineteen fifties, in a London suburb called Hounslow, near Heathrow Airport, (which was at that time just emerging form its wartime guise, to become an international airport), and Peter was adopted by a couple called Mr & Mrs Crawford.
Jane and John Crawford were lucky – they had survived the War, despite John Crawford spending his war service in the Middle East, and Jane Crawford having to cope with the bombing in both Hounslow, Newcastle and central London.
Their wartime experiences undoubtedly caused them some significant emotional scarring, but in nineteen fifty, like so many relatively young people who had survived the war, they were hoping to start a new life in, what was for them, a safe and peaceful, post-war world.
But the world, that to our Peter seemed perfectly normal, was a world that had been traumatized by years of war, and almost all the adults in that world had been equally traumatized.
‘Nine eleven’ may have traumatized many people, both in New York, and in many other parts of the world, but what we must imagine was a ‘nine-eleven’ almost every day for years on end, culminating in the London Blitz , the fire storms of Dresden and Berlin, and the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
And on a lesser scale it was a world, for many years after that war, haunted by rationing, ‘make-do-and-mend’, and bomb-sites.So the people who had decided to look after Peter, even although they had survived the war, were not like the adults of today. They had seen things and done things that most of us now would find hard to imagine, and hard to ‘stomach’, and had been forced to go through years of privation, danger and seemingly endless waiting.
So the peace was, to those people, very precious. Something that they had been barely able to hope for.They were, for the most part, committed to make a better world for their children, but they would always be somehow disconnected and remote from those young people. Their experiences, about which they found it almost impossible to talk, would always separate them from those who grew up with no direct experience of the horrors and anxiety of war.
But who were these people – Jane and John Crawford ?
Of Peter’s grandparents he only knew one. This was ‘Granddad’; his adoptive mother’s father.
‘Granddad’s’ real name was Richard Walker, a master plumber & foreman of a small private company. Strictly speaking he was a Victorian, having been born in 1876 in Edinburgh.
His work was one of the high technologies of the Victorian era, & his background could be found in the milieu which spawned many of those technologies; namely Scottish Presbyterianism.
Although fond of his whisky, he was, moreover, committed to hard work & the pursuit of a respectable & good living which would grant him independence & the respect of his peers.
For him, as for most people during the Victorian & Edwardian eras, with the exception of the upper classes, leisure was a rare commodity taken, mainly for the children’s sake, at Christmas, Easter & Bank Holiday. It was a precept of the Protestant Work Ethic that ‘work, & success through work, were justified means for salvation – that Satan made work for idle hands & that to work hard, bring up your family & leave them with a skill, a trade or a business so that they could follow in your footsteps, was a man’s privilege & duty’. The concept of working to finance periods of leisure & ‘having fun’ was totally alien to ‘Granddad’s’ generation.
Although rather simply stated here, this attitude & philosophy was dominant among the lower classes during the decades around the turn of the century. When, inevitably,  the Great War came, it undoubtedly shook the foundations of these working class values, although not to the extent that it effected political, intellectual & aesthetic endeavours.
Returning soldiers demanded ‘Homes fit for Heroes’, & there was even a General Strike in 1926, but still, as a result of education, the influence of the  churches &, in many cases their own convictions, the majority of workers & small entrepreneurs continued to live by the values of the previous generation.
‘Granddad’s’ wife, ‘our Peter’s’ adoptive ‘grandmother’, Jane, was Roman Catholic, so their marriage, for that time, was unusual to say the least.As was the custom, the children of the marriage were brought up as Catholics, which put an unfortunate barrier between Richard and his children.
When Richard Walker died, in the nineteen sixties, he converted to Catholicism on his deathbed, although as he was convinced during his final illness that he had won the Football Pools, and had taken to reading the newspaper upside down, this decision seems to have more to do with his rabidly Catholic daughter Mary, who was nursing him, rather than any rational deliberations or spiritual awakening on his part.
‘Our Peter’s’ adoptive mother was born in Jarrow, in 1914, the youngest of a family of five.
The eldest child of Richard and Jane Walker was Margaret, always known as Maggie. The next was Richard, the only son. Then came Mary, and finally ‘our Peter’s’ adoptive mother, Jane.Two years after little Jane was born her mother, Jane – the mother – died, and it was left to Maggie to bring up the family.
Richard never re-married, and the children undoubtedly missed the love and care that a mother could provide. Peter’s adoptive mother, being the youngest, and needing most care, was regularly farmed out to relatives, and most often to her great aunt, Sarah, who lived in a huge Victorian apartment in Princes street, close to John Knox’s house, in Edinburgh.Holidays were usually spent at the local coastal resorts of Cramond, Leith, Musselburgh or Port Seton, and on other occasions there were trips to Holyrood, the Castle and Arthur’s Seat, and the Royal Botanical Gardens.
Interestingly, ‘our Peter’ met Great Aunt Sarah, his only Great Aunt, when he was a little boy, probably about six years old. Of course, Peter had no idea of who she was, and strangely nobody told him.
Jane, Peter’s adoptive mother, deep down, thought of herself as being essentially Scottish, and in later life, after a few sherries, or whiskies at Hogmanay, she would become maudlin, and start singing sentimental Scottish ballads in between reminiscences of those far off days. Undoubtedly the most secure and stable times in her life were spent in the cultured air and tranquillity of Scotland’s noble capital.
Peter’s adoptive father was born in Gateshead, on the twenty-seventh of January 1906.
Oddly he shared his birthday with the German Kaiser, Wilhelm II.
Although he boasted a Scottish surname of the finest pedigree, his links with Scotland were far more tenuous than Jane’s.
His father’s name was Joseph Crawford, and his mother was called Jane.
The family was Protestant; Church of England, and this was to cause problems later on when he decided to marry.Joe, as he was always called, died while John was very young.
Jane, (yes, another Jane), Joe’s wife, had five children.
The eldest was Richard, then came Ralph, then Winney, then Molly and finally John.
Unable to support such a large brood, Jane quickly remarried.He second husband was always referred to by John as Mr Wilkes. It said much about the relationship between son and stepfather that no Christian name was ever revealed.
Mr Wilkes died after a few years & Jane was once again on her own. By then, however, the children were growing up, and the boys left school at fourteen and got whatever jobs were available.John went to work for a butcher; started as a delivery boy but was soon preparing joints, and attending to the customers in the shop.Eventually, however, with the coming of the recession, they all found themselves out of work.
The boys, in order not to be any burden on their mother, moved out each Summer, and camped at Frenchman’s Bay, and it was there that John Crawford met Jane Walker.
In nineteen-thirty-seven Jane and John were married in Felling, near Gateshead.
They then travelled south, and settled in Barrack Road in Hounslow, Middlesex, as John was stationed at the headquarters of the Army Southern Command in Hounslow barracks.

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A new chapter has been added to ‘The Lord of the Harvest’

part of the blog ‘Through My Eyes’

PLEASE NOTE – THE BLOGS ‘GREAT ART’ & ‘OTTO LOHMULLER’ HAVE BEEN DELETED BY WORDPRESS

WE ARE DOING ARE BEST TO HAVE THESE BLOGS RE-INSTATED

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OTHER  BLOGS  BY  PETER  CRAWFORD


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LORD OF THE HARVEST

 

ROYAL EGYPT


OTTO  LOHMÜLLER

 

TOM  DALEY